Greetham, B. 2009. How to Write Your Undergraduate Dissertation. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
If a source has several authors, all their names are mentioned. Their names are separated by commas; the last two names are separated by an & symbol.
Malmfors, B., Garnsworthy, P. & Grossman, M. 2003. Writing and Presenting Scientific Papers. Nottingham: Nottingham University Press.
Scientific article (journal article)
Coulter, K. S. & Coulter, R. A. 2002. Determinants of Trust in a Service Provider: the Moderating Role of Length of Relationship. The Journal of Service Marketing Vol. 16 No 1, 35–50.
Uusitalo-Malmivaara, L., Kankaanpää, P., Mäkinen, T., Raeluoto, T., Rauttu, K., Tarhala, V. & Lehto, J. E. 2012. Are Special Education Students Happy? Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 56, 419–437.
Worthington, B. 2003. Change in an Estonian Resort. Contrasting Development Contexts. Annals of Tourism Research Vol. 30. No 2, 369–385. Accessed 8 April 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(02)00105-6.
The example above used the doi.org alphanumeric string which provides a persistent link to its location on the Internet. (DOI = Digital Object Identifier). The DOI is typically located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.
An article in an edited book (a compilation as a source)
Drew, P. & Heritage, J. 1992. Analyzing Talk at Work: An Introduction. In P. Drew & J. Heritage (ed.) Talk at Work. Interaction in institutional Settings. Studies in Interactional Sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 3–65.
Newspaper and magazine articles
Smith, R. 2014. Just Press Print. As Epoch-making as Gutenberg’s Printing Press, 3-D Printing Is Changing the Shape of the Future. National Geographic. December 2014.
Jayalath, C., Stephen, J. & Eugster, P. 2014. Universal Cross-Cloud Communication. IEEE, Volume 2. 103–116.
Delaney, K. J., Karnitschnig, M. & Guth, R. A. Microsoft Ends Pursuit of Yahoo, Reassesses Its Online Option. The Wall Street Journal 5 May 2008, 12.
Health Care in Finland 2004. Brochures of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health 2004:11.
Rautiainen, M., Vanhanen-Nuutinen, L. & Virta, A. 2014. Democracy and Human Rights. Objectives and Content in Teacher Education. Reports of the Ministry of Education and Culture, Finland 2014:18.
Working Group’s Report on Setting up a Register for Legal Interpreters 2014. Reports of the Ministry of Education and Culture, Finland 2014:22.
Konola, S. & Kähkönen, P. 2015. Arctic Wears – Perspectives on Arctic Clothing. Rovaniemi: Lapland University of Applied Sciences. Liiketoiminta ja yrittäjyys 10/2015. Accessed 3 December 2015 https://publications.theseus.fi/handle/10024/96820.
Helman, K. 2011. Project Management Jumpstart. 3rd edition. Hoboken, N.J. Wiley Publishing Inc. Ebook. Accessed 8 January 2016 https://luc.finna.fi/lapinamk/, Ebrary.
According to the name of the publication if no author is mentioned:
Alcohol Issues in Licensed Premises 2014. Guidelines 6/2014. Valvira. National Supervisory Authority for Welfare and Health. Accessed 20 December 2015 http://www.valvira.fi/documents/18508/84401/Alcohol_Issues_in_Licensed_Premises.pdf.
Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Accommodation Statistics 2015. Helsinki: Statistics Finland. Accessed 3 December 2015 http://www.stat.fi/til/matk/index_en.html.
According to the organisation responsible for the website:
Lapland UAS 2015. Arctic Power. Accessed 3 December 2015 http://www.lapinamk.fi/en/Employers/Development-enviroments/Arctic-Power.
García-Rosell, J. C. 2009. A Multi-stakeholder Perspective on Sustainable Marketing: Studying Business-Society Relations Through Action Research. University of Oulu. Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. Licentiate thesis.
Structural Fund Act 29.12.2006/1401.
For email messages, mention the sender’s last name and first initial as well as the year, subject, recipient and date of the email and the date it was printed out.
Stevenson, A. 2014. About Thesis Presentation. Email firstname.lastname@example.org 11 April 2014. Printed out 15 April 2014.
For interviews, discussions and lectures, mention the person’s last name and first initial as well as the year, organisation, title/rank/position, interview/discussion/lecture, title of lecture and the date.
Viljanen, S. 2011. Digital Equipment Corporation Oy. Production Manager’s interview 12 April 2011.
DVD or video recordings
Frozen Planet: The Complete Series. 2012. DVD. BBC Home Entertainment.
Ruudun hurma 1996. Video recording. Ed. Ritva Leino. Yle’s Open University. TV1. Educational programmes.
Christmas Story 2007. Film. Director: Juha Wuolijoki. Producer: Snapper Films Oy.
Munapään tarina 2005. Animation. Director: Tero Mäkelä. Producer: Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences, Tornio.
If there is one author, the reference contains the author’s last name, the date of publication and the page numbers. For several different pages in the same publication, give the page numbers as a range or separated by commas: If you are citing information from more than one page, separate consecutive page numbers with a hyphen (–). Do not precede or follow the hyphen with any spaces.
(Harrison 2008, 43) or
(Harrison 2008, 34–55, 68), if you refer to several pages.
If you use several sources written by the same author during the same year, differentiate between them by marking a, b or c, etc. after the year according to the alphabetical order of the titles of the sources:
(Grönroos 2007b, 63)
If a reference refers to one author’s publications from different years, write them as follows:
(Getz 2003, 100–105; 2007, 23; 2012, 33–45)
If there are two authors, write them both in the reference, regardless of whether you are referring to them the first or second time. Separate the last names with an ampersand (&), preceded and followed by a space:
(Welling & Thomson 2008, 96)
If there are three to five authors, write all the last names the first time you refer to the source:
(Krause, Wasynczuk & Sudhoff 2002, 267–269)
In subsequent references write only the first author’s last name and the abbreviation et al. If there are six or more authors, this notation can be used even the first time you refer to the source.
(Jackson et al. 2008, 56)
If the author is not given for a publication used as a source, give the name of the publication, the year and the page number(s):
(Alcohol Issues in Licensed Premises 2014)
If the text contains references to several sources, as a rule the textual references can be marked in chronological order. The text should clearly indicate which piece of information comes from which source. The sources are separated by a semicolon.
References to laws and statutes mention the name, number, year, chapter, article and clause. The clause is mentioned if the article contains more than one clause. The chapter and article are separated by a colon and the article and clause are separated by a period.
(Structural Fund Act 272/2010 5:12.3 §).
A reference to a WWW page mentions the author of the text and the publication year. If the author of the electronic publication is unknown, the name of the publication is mentioned. For example, this applies to pdf publications. If the author is not known, the reference mentions the organization responsible for the website. Page numbers are given only if they are visible on the webpage.
A reference to an electronic book, newspaper or magazine is the same as for a corresponding printed publication. A reference to an electronic publication whose authors are known:
(Konola & Kähkönen 2015)
A reference to an electronic publication whose authors are not known:
(Alcohol Issues in Licensed Premises 2014, 5)
(Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Accommodation Statistics 2015)
A reference to the organisation responsible for the website when the authors are not known:
(Lapland UAS 2015)
Refer to an ebook like to a printed book:
(Helman 2011, 33–42)
A reference to an email message mentions the last name of the sender and the year.
For interviews, discussions and lectures, mention the person’s last name and the year.
You should always use primary, original sources. However, it is sometimes justifiable to use a secondary source. Both the original and the secondary source are marked in the bibliography. According to Hirsjärvi et al. (2007, 335–340), the textual reference to the original source in the secondary source may be marked as follows:
According to Uusikylä (1994, 132) Callahan (1990) defines – –.
(Vuorinen 1991, as cited in Silvonen 1992, 150)
In the following example, Poikelas’ article is a secondary source that discuses Kolb’s original work:
According to Poikela and Poikela (2010, 25), Kolb (1984) attempts to integrate work, education and personal growth into a holistic perception of learning.
If the reference refers to information within just one sentence, mark the reference within the sentence and place the period of the sentence after the final parenthesis of the reference:
When using interviews as a method of collecting data, several aspects need to be considered including the personality of the interviewer, time control, the location of the interview as well as the techniques of data collection and analysis (Swetnam 2004, 64–66).
Several separate references may be placed within one sentence. Place the reference immediately after the information it refers to (Swales & Feak 2004, 199):
The questionnaire was based on the Italian version (Genta et al. 1996) of the original questionnaire developed by Olweus (1993) for the Scandinavian population, subsequently translated and validated in English by Smith and his colleagues (Whitney & Smith 1993; Smith & Sharp 1994).
If the reference refers to more than one sentence, the initial parenthesis is preceded by a period. Also place a period inside the parentheses. The reference can refer to more than one source. In such a case place all the sources within the same parentheses and separate them with a semicolon. Such references may be in chronological order, alphabetical order or order of importance. Remember to use the same order strategy throughout the thesis when giving several sources within one reference.
Using active verbs is essential if you want to write with a direct authoritative style. Instead of using the impersonal passive verbs and third person viewpoint, you should write with strong, active verbs. (Peräkylä 1997, 177.)
Using active verbs is the first rule of good writing. All authorities on good writing, including scientific and technical bodies, recommend active verbs rather than passive verbs. Why? Passive verbs are longwinded, ambiguous and dull. Active verbs make your writing simpler, less awkward, clearer and more precise. (Drew & Heritage 1992, 24–28; Komter 1995, 107–126; Nuolijärvi 1994, 52; Peräkylä 1997, 178–179.)