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Databases university

Help for Academic Writing

Examples of a reference list using the APA 6th (adaption)


Rosenberg, I. (2016). Philosophy of social science. Boulder, Colo. Westview Press.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2016). Research methods for business students. Harlow: Pearson Education.

Amaden-Crawford, C. (2018). The art of fashion draping (5th edition ed.). London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Duxbury, N., & Richards, G. (Eds.). (2019). A research agenda for creative tourism. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Name of author or editor

  • editor's name is followed by (Eds.) or corresponding abbreviation
  • organizational authors' names are given in the same form as they appear in the publication, with the main organization listed first and the suborganization after that
  • if there is no personal or organizational author, the reference starts with the title of the publication



Seow, F. (2015). Indigenous communities and indigenous children. International Journal of Children's Rights, 23(4), 844-866.

Sintonen, S. & Pehkonen, A. (2014). Effect of social networks and well-being on acute care needs. Health & Social Care in the Community, 22(1), 87-95.


  • use DOI if possible
  • you don't need URL if the journal is both printed and online


Uljas-Rautio, K. (2010). Kirjoittamisen ja lukemisen taito. In J. Hurtig, M. Laitinen & K. Uljas-Rautio (Eds.), Ajattele itse! Tutkimuksellisen lukutaidon perusteet. (pp. 149–182). Jyväskylä: PS-kustannus.

Merchant, G. (2017). Hands, Fingers and iPads. In C. Burnett, G. Merchant, A. Simpson & M. Walsh (Eds.), The Case of the iPad: Mobile literacies in education (pp. 245-256). Singapore: Springer.


Vastuullinen tiede. Guide to research integrity, research ethics and science communication in Finland. The website of Finnish National Board on Research Integrity TENK and of the Committee for Public Information TJNK. Retrieved from

Parland-von Essen, J. (2016, July 7). Öppen tillgång – till vilket pris? [blog post]. Retrieved from

Citing e-resources
You may indicate how to access electronic resources and leave links active.

  • Use a permanent link if possible, for example DOI, URN, Handle or so-called permalink. Create a link from a DOI as follows:[DOI identifier.] Use the Crossref Metadata Search to find out the DOI of a publication.
  • Reference to a source in an online archive, for example Internet Archive tai Memento, either an existing one or one uploaded by you.
  • URL address


Song, Y. (2017). Personalised Learning on MOOCs (Pro gradu, Lapland University). Retrieved from

Begum, S. (2018). Ageing and Gender in the Nordic Arctic (Dissertation, Lapland University). (Acta electronica Universitatis Lapponiensis). Retrieved from

APA style in-text citations (adaption)

One author

  • first citation in text (Saunders, 2018, p.187)
  • subsequent citations (Saunders, 2018, p. 120)

Two authors

  • first citation (Saunders & Lewis, 2016, p. 110)
  • subsequent citations (Saunders & Lewis, 2016, p. 167)

Three to five authors

  • first citation (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2016,  p.110)
  • subsequent citations (Saunders et al., 2016, p. 167)

Six or more authors

  • first citation (Saunders et al., 2016, pp.110-115)
  • subsequent citations (Saunders et al., 2016, pp.110-115)

If the author is not given, write the name of the publication.

Avoiding Plagiarism

Urkund is a plagiarism control system used at the Lapland University.

Some sites on plagiarism